What is a Sinus?
The maxillary sinuses are behind your cheeks and on top of the upper teeth. These sinuses are empty, air-filled spaces. Some of the roots of the natural upper teeth extend up into the maxillary sinuses. When these upper teeth are removed, there is often just a thin wall of bone separating the maxillary sinus and the mouth. Dental implants need bone to hold them in place. When the sinus wall is very thin, it is impossible to place dental implants in this bone.
The Sinus Augmentation Procedure:
The key to a successful and long-lasting dental implant is the quality and quantity of jaw bone to which the implant will be attached. If bone loss has occurred due to injury or periodontal disease, a sinus augmentation can raise the sinus floor and allow for new bone formation.
In the most common sinus augmentation procedure, the jaw bone over the proposed implant site is surgically exposed. A small opening is cut into the bone, and the membrane lining the sinus is pushed inward and upward. The resulting space is filled with bone grafting material, either from your own body or from a cadaver. After the bone graft is placed, a protective membrane is placed over the small opening in the bone, the incision is closed and the healing process begins. After several months of healing, new bone integrates into the graft material and becomes part of the patient’s jaw. Dental implants of sufficient size and length can now be inserted and stabilized in this new sinus bone.
If enough bone between the upper jaw ridge and the bottom of the sinus is available to stabilize the implant well, sinus augmentations and implant placement can sometimes be performed as a single procedure. If not enough bone is available, the sinus augmentation will have to be performed first, then the graft will have to mature for several months, depending upon the type of graft material used. Once the graft has matured, the implants can be placed.
The sinus graft makes it possible for many patients to have dental implants when years ago there was no other option than using removable dentures.